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Besondere Unterkünfte zum kleinen Preis. Täglich neue Angebote. 98% Kundenzufriedenheit. Hotels in Istanbul. Einfach & schnell Hotels buchen. Istanbul (türkisch İstanbul [isˈtanbuɫ], von griechisch εἰς τὴν πόλιν eis tḕn pólin​, „in die Stadt“: siehe unten), früher Byzantion (Byzanz) und Konstantinopel. Der Verkehr in Istanbul ist Dreh- und Angelpunkt des Straßen-, Schienen- und Luftverkehrs im westlichen Teil der Türkei. Istanbul (Türkisch: İstanbul), früher Konstantinopel (Nova Roma) und zuvor Byzanz, liegt an der Nahtstelle Europas und Asiens am Bosporus. Diese weltweit als.

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Istanbul (türkisch İstanbul [isˈtanbuɫ], von griechisch εἰς τὴν πόλιν eis tḕn pólin​, „in die Stadt“: siehe unten), früher Byzantion (Byzanz) und Konstantinopel. Besondere Unterkünfte zum kleinen Preis. Täglich neue Angebote. 98% Kundenzufriedenheit. Der eine Teil gehört zu Europa, der andere zu Asien. Als einzige Metropole liegt Istanbul auf zwei Kontinenten. Geteilt wird sie durch zwei bedeutende.

Only short sections of their foot- 9-metre- high masonry still remain along the Golden Horn. Intact, these walls had towers and 14 gates.

The walls along the Sea of Marmara, which stretch about 5 miles 8 km from Seraglio Point, curving around the bottom of the peninsula to join the land walls, had towers; they were, however, only about 20 feet 6 metres high, because the Marmara currents provided good protection against enemy landings.

Most of these walls still stand. Within the city walls are the seven hills, their summits flattened through the ages but their slopes still steep and toilsome.

Geographers number them from the seaward tip of the peninsula, proceeding inland along the Golden Horn, the last hill standing alone where the land walls reach the Sea of Marmara.

Each day before dawn their centre spans are swung open to allow passage to seagoing ships. The shores of the Horn, served by water buses, are a jumble of docks, warehouses, factories, and occasional historical ruins.

Ferries to the Asian side of Istanbul leave from under the Galata Bridge. Two tunnels under the Bosporus, one for passenger rail and one for automobile traffic, were opened in and respectively.

Warfare and fires have left standing only a few structures that were built earlier than the 19th century.

The approach from the Golden Horn is steep, and a funicular railway runs between the Galata waterfront and the Pera Plateau.

On the heights are the big hotels and restaurants, the travel bureaus, theatres, the opera house, the consulates, and many Turkish government offices.

From the 10th century onward, Galata was an enclave for foreign traders—principally the Genoese—who enjoyed extraterritorial privileges behind their walls.

After the Ottomans took the city in , all foreigners who were not citizens of the empire were restricted to this quarter. Around palatial embassies were compounds that included schools, churches, and hospitals for the various nationalities.

Eventually Galata became too crowded, so that the tide of building moved higher up the slope to the open country of Pera.

Article Media. Travel Forums. Rental Cars. Vacation Packages. Add a Place. See all photos. Istanbul Istanbul. A spellbinding city where cultures collide.

Over the centuries, many cultures have added their mark to Istanbul. Today, you can experience those influences firsthand by exploring its mahalles neighborhoods.

Start planning for Istanbul. Create a Trip to save and organize all of your travel ideas, and see them on a map. Create a Trip.

Best time to visit. Essential Istanbul. Go Play. Places to see, ways to wander, and signature experiences that define Istanbul.

Hagia Sophia Museum. Dolmabahce Palace. Historic Areas of Istanbul. Topkapi Palace. Rumeli Fortress. Basilica Cistern.

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Tomtom Suites. He had hired engineers to build cannons and bombs for the occasion. He also acquired scholars and imams to encourage the soldiers.

Constantine valiantly refused the offer. Against their counsel, Mehmed continued to fight. The night before the final assault, he studied previous attempts to take the city to distinguish potentially successful approaches.

On the morning of 29 May the sultan ordered Adzan the call to prayer. Once the fighting started, it went on for forty-eight days.

The wall was beginning to collapse when Constantine sent a letter to the pope asking for help. In response the Papacy sent five ships full of reinforcements, weapons and supplies.

Another defense tactic involved Constantine blocking off the port so that the Ottoman army could not get ships into it. Mehmed had his people pave a path from oiled tree branches in order to bring eighty ships overland, and placed them into the gulf behind the enemy ships.

The Ottoman ships burnt the Byzantine ones in a naval battle. Since the Byzantine army was still holding on after this defeat, the sultan thought it was time to set up his secret weapon, a huge mobile tower.

This tower could hold many soldiers who could be at the same level as the walls of the city, making it easier for them to break into Constantinople.

The first group of Ottomans who entered the city were killed almost immediately, with the effect that the other Muslims began to retreat. Witnessing this, the sultan encouraged his soldiers.

Soon after the sultan's encouragement the Muslims broke the wall in two places and entered the city. In a last attempt to protect it, Constantine attacked the enemy sword raised; however he was defeated and killed.

Finally, Constantinople was under Ottoman rule. Mehmed entered Constantinople through what is now known as the Topkapi Gate.

He immediately rode his horse to the Hagia Sophia which he ordered to be sacked. He ordered that an imam meet him there in order to chant the Muslim Creed: "I testify that there is no God but Allah.

I testify that Muhammad is the Prophet of Allah. Mehmed ordered the city to be plundered for three days; during this time, widespread persecution of the city's civilian inhabitants took place, resulting in thousands of casualties, rapes and forced deportations.

Building projects were commenced immediately after the conquest, which included the repair of the walls, construction of the citadel, and building a new palace.

By , the Sultan dedicated a lot of energy to bringing prosperity to Constantinople. In several quarters of the city pious foundations were created; these areas consisted of a theological college, a school or a Madrasa, usually connected to the mosque [27] , a public kitchen, and a mosque.

These actions led it to become a once again thriving capital city, now of the Ottoman Empire. Suleiman the Magnificent 's reign over the Ottoman Empire from to was a period of great artistic and architectural achievements.

The famous architect Mimar Sinan designed many mosques and other grand buildings in the city, while Ottoman arts of ceramics and calligraphy also flourished.

In the final years of the Byzantine Empire, the population of Constantinople had fallen steadily, throwing the great imperial city into the shadow of its past glory.

For Mehmet II , conquest was only the first stage; the second was giving the old city an entirely new cosmopolitan social structure.

Most of what remained of the Byzantine population - a mere 30, persons - was deported. According to the Ashikpashazade, a Turkish chronicle,.

Mehmet then sent officers to all his lands to announce that whoever wished should come and take possession in Constantinople, as freehold, of houses and orchards and gardens Despite this measure the city was not repopulated.

So then the Sultan commanded that from every land families, rich and poor alike, should be brought in by force Mehmet took much personal interest in the creation of his new capital.

On his orders the great mosque and the college of Fatih were built on the old burial grounds of the Byzantine Emperors at the Church of the Holy Apostles.

Bit by bit the great Christian city was transformed into a great Muslim city. Even so, the city was not to be entirely Muslim, at least not until the late 20th century.

Slavs , Greeks , Jews and Armenians , all of whose diverse skills were needed, were allowed to settle in a city which was to become known as alem penah -refuge of the universe.

According to the census of , there were 9, houses occupied by Muslims; 3, by Greeks; 1, by Jews; by Christians from the Crimea, and 31 Gypsies.

Mehmet also re-established Constantinople, as it was still called at that time, as the center of the Orthodox patriarchate.

There was also an Italian community in the area of the Galata Tower. Having surrendered before the fall of the city, Mehmet allowed them to preserve an element of self-government.

For generations after, they supplied interpreters and diplomats for the Ottoman Court. After the conquest of Egypt in , and the Sultan's acceptance of the position of Caliph, Constantinople acquired an additional importance in Muslim eyes.

Mosques built by Suleyman the Magnificent and his successors gave the city the unique appearance it still preserves today. The individual communities, though, still lived in self-contained areas, and had little in the way of social interaction, a source of future trouble.

Until the eighteenth century, living standards were at least equal to most of Europe. For example, the development of urban craftsmen's wages was on a level similar to southern and central Europe during the sixteenth to eighteenth century.

Religious foundations were endowed to fund the building of mosques such as the Fatih and their associated schools and public baths. The city had to be repopulated by a mixture of force and encouragement.

Süleyman's reign was a time of great artistic and architectural achievements. The architect Sinan designed many mosques and other great buildings in the city, while Ottoman arts of ceramics and calligraphy also flourished.

Sufi orders which were so widespread in the Islamic world and who had many followers who had actively participated in the conquest of the city came to settle in the capital.

During Ottoman times over Tekkes were active in the city alone.

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MAGRIB AZAN By RAJAB TAYYEB ERDOGAN in ISTAMBOL Der eine Teil gehört zu Europa, der andere zu Asien. Als einzige Metropole liegt Istanbul auf zwei Kontinenten. Geteilt wird sie durch zwei bedeutende. Die Metropole Istanbul befindet sich nicht nur geographisch in Europa und Asien, auch kulturell und wirtschaftlich ist die Stadt von beiden Kontinenten geprägt. Sehenswürdigkeiten in Istanbul, Unterkunftsverzeichnis von Istanbul, Ferienwohnungen in Istanbul, Shopping in Istanbul, Museen & Galerien in Istanbul. Istanbul ist exotisch, cool, konservativ und quirlig: Wer keine Zeit für eine Weltreise hat, der sollte Istanbul besuchen. Istanbul ist zurzeit wohl die dynamischste Grossstadt der Welt. An fast keinem Ort treffen so viele Traditionen, Kulturen und Ideen aufeinander. Dazu kommt die. Istambol

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Extranet login. Humans have lived in the area now known as Istanbul since at least the Neolithic period.

The first name of the city was Lygos [8] according to Pliny the Elder in his historical accounts. It was founded by Thracian tribes, along with the neighbouring fishing village of Semistra.

Lygos and Semistra were the only settlements on the European side of Istanbul. On the Asian side there was a Phoenician colony. On the site of Lygos, the later Byzantium was located, thus Lygos is accepted as the city which gave rise to Istanbul.

The name is believed to be of Thracian or Illyrian origin and thus to predate the Greek settlement. After siding with Pescennius Niger against the victorious Septimius Severus the city was besieged by Rome and suffered extensive damage in AD Byzantium now renamed as Nova Roma which eventually became Constantinopolis , i.

The City of Constantine was officially proclaimed the new capital of the Roman Empire in At the end of his reign in , Constantine declared his three sons as joint heirs of the Roman Empire in a system of co-emperorship.

The territory was officially split in when Theodosius I ruled, died, leaving his son Honorius emperor of the western half, and his other son Arcadius emperor of the eastern half of the empire.

Constantinople became the capital of the Eastern Roman Byzantine Empire. The combination of imperial power and a key location at the crossing point between the continents of Europe and Asia , and later Africa and others regions, played an important role in terms of commerce , culture , diplomacy , and strategy.

It was the center of the Greek world and, for most of the Byzantine period, the largest city in Europe. Constantine's conversion to Christianity , in , had set the Roman Empire towards Christianization, and in , during the reign of Theodosius I, the official state religion of the Roman Empire became Christianity, turning Constantinople into a thriving religious center.

Throughout the fifth century, the western half of the Roman Empire lost most of its power through decline in political, economic and social situations, the last western emperor being deposed by Germanic mercenaries in AD ; the eastern half, however, was flourishing.

According to historians this flourishing Eastern Roman Empire was then classified as the Byzantine Empire to distinguish it from the Roman Empire.

The seat of the Patriarch of Constantinople , spiritual leader of the Eastern Orthodox Church , remains. The most famous Byzantine emperor was Justinian During his reign he extended the Byzantine Empire to its largest boundaries spreading from Palestine to the tip of Spain.

His other achievements include the famous Hagia Sophia church and the organized law system called the Codex which was completed in Starting in the 's, warfare kept Constantinople's power flip-flopping between decline and progression.

Alliance with Europe slowly began to break away from the Byzantine Empire between the seventh-eighth centuries, when the Byzantine and Roman churches disagreed on various subjects.

However, the distinguishing gap placed between the two churches involved the use of icons in the church. Icons, being images of Christian holy people such as Jesus Christ , the Virgin Mary and the saints, to Byzantine Christians were more than representations; they were believed to possess holy power that affected people's daily lives [15] While many Byzantines worshiped icons many opposed the icons because they tested the authorities of the emperor.

The destruction of icons reorganized and reoriented the Byzantine rulers in imperial power. The papacy was unwilling to permit sacred images and icons to be destroyed and this caused eventual separation.

From around the 9th to 13th centuries, Constantinople developed complex relationships with an emerging and later the largest and most advanced state of that time in Europe - Kiev Rus.

Constantinople played a significant role in the Kiev Rus development, culture, and politics. However these relationships were not always friendly - Constantinople was sacked several times over those years by Kiev Princes, forcing Constantinople to sign increasingly favorable treaties for Kiev , the texts of which were preserved in the Primary Chronicle and other historical documents see Rus'-Byzantine Wars.

Byzantine constantly played Kiev, Poland, Bulgaria, and other European Nations of that time, against each other. Near , Constantinople began to decline in power.

Because of the failure of the Third Crusade, self-confident western Europeans decided to again try to capture the Holy City of Jerusalem in the Fourth Crusade ; but this time their plan was to capture the Byzantine Empire as well.

In , western armies captured Constantinople and ransacked the city for treasures. The crusaders chose Baldwin of Flanders to be the new Byzantine Emperor; he along with other princes and the Venetians divided the Empire amongst themselves; they never made it to Jerusalem.

Rather than a thriving metropolis, Constantinople transformed into a collection of villages, and became a semi- ghost town with, as Ibn Battuta noted, sown fields within the city walls.

The city by held less than a tenth of its former population. Also, the Turks could not properly pronounce words beginning with two constants and beginning with "s" without adding an "i" in front.

The city became the third capital of the Ottoman Empire. Mehmed had begun the siege on 6 April He had hired engineers to build cannons and bombs for the occasion.

He also acquired scholars and imams to encourage the soldiers. Constantine valiantly refused the offer. Against their counsel, Mehmed continued to fight.

The night before the final assault, he studied previous attempts to take the city to distinguish potentially successful approaches.

On the morning of 29 May the sultan ordered Adzan the call to prayer. Once the fighting started, it went on for forty-eight days.

The wall was beginning to collapse when Constantine sent a letter to the pope asking for help. In response the Papacy sent five ships full of reinforcements, weapons and supplies.

Another defense tactic involved Constantine blocking off the port so that the Ottoman army could not get ships into it. Mehmed had his people pave a path from oiled tree branches in order to bring eighty ships overland, and placed them into the gulf behind the enemy ships.

The Ottoman ships burnt the Byzantine ones in a naval battle. Since the Byzantine army was still holding on after this defeat, the sultan thought it was time to set up his secret weapon, a huge mobile tower.

This tower could hold many soldiers who could be at the same level as the walls of the city, making it easier for them to break into Constantinople.

The first group of Ottomans who entered the city were killed almost immediately, with the effect that the other Muslims began to retreat.

Witnessing this, the sultan encouraged his soldiers. Soon after the sultan's encouragement the Muslims broke the wall in two places and entered the city.

Vacation Packages. Add a Place. See all photos. Istanbul Istanbul. A spellbinding city where cultures collide. Over the centuries, many cultures have added their mark to Istanbul.

Today, you can experience those influences firsthand by exploring its mahalles neighborhoods. Start planning for Istanbul.

Create a Trip to save and organize all of your travel ideas, and see them on a map. Create a Trip. Best time to visit. Essential Istanbul.

Go Play. Places to see, ways to wander, and signature experiences that define Istanbul. Hagia Sophia Museum.

Dolmabahce Palace. Historic Areas of Istanbul. Topkapi Palace. Rumeli Fortress. Basilica Cistern.

Sultanahmet District. Kapali Carsi. Go Rest. Raffles Istanbul. Ciragan Palace Kempinski Istanbul. Pera Palace Hotel.

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